Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture and Spring Journal Books
Spring 91
$ 25.95

Spring 91: Women's Voices

ISBN: 978-1-935528-66-1
298 pp.

Nancy Cater & Patricia Reis, Co-Editors
This volume was inspired by When Women Were Birds: Fifty-four Variations on Voice by American writer, naturalist, and environmental activist Terry Tempest Williams. We are honored that Terry Tempest Williams agreed to be interviewed in this issue. The interview with guest co-editor Patricia Reis opens this issue and sets the tone for the articles that follow.

In When Women Were Birds, Terry Tempest Williams asks, "What needs to be counted on to have a voice? Courage. Anger. Love. Something to say; someone to listen." The sixteen contributors to this volume recognize and demonstrate, directly or indirectly, the truth of Terry Tempest Williams' observation. Articles address the psychological issues that arise when women attempt to express themselves, the obstacles faced, the obstacles overcome (or not), the creativity that may released. Included are both clinical articles, as well as personal and more academic papers.

The contributors come from different places and different backgrounds. They include writers, poets, teachers, analysts, educators, and theorists. Their writing styles vary accordingly, yet their works share similar themes, from the deeply personal to the cultural and historical, from the literary to the mythological and spiritual. Terry Tempest Williams' statement about voice implies a necessary bond between speaker and listener, or as in this case, author and reader, and it is our hope that this Women's Voices issue of Spring will encourage such a mutually inspired relationship.
Introduction Nancy Cater
1,000 Tongues: A Conversation with Terry Tempest Williams Patricia Reis
"Genesis" Robin van Löben Sels
Women, Voice, Birds, and Place Holly J. Hughes
Dragon Fire: Finding Voice in the Catskill Mountains Leigh Melander
Deep Song: Envoicing the Motherline Marlene A. Schiwy
Shame, Secrecy, and Silence: The Tangled Roots of Childhood and the Suppression of Voice Joyce Brady
In the Absence of a Mother Tongue Charlene Spretnak
Speech Defector: A Child Stutterer Finds Her Voice Carolyn Butcher
The Fat Lady Sings Cheryl Fuller
Sleeping Beauty Wakes Up: Breaking the Spell of Women's Silence Janice Gary
Flying by Words—From the Front Porch to the Podium: Educational Individuation and Creative Endurance Geraldine Cannon Becker
A Legacy of Silences: Transforming the Silence of Absence to a Silence of Presence Marilyn L. Matthews
Beyond Echo and Cassandra: Finding the Voice of Inner Authority Kaitryn Sheehan Wertz
Artemis and Bear Mothers: Fiercely Protective, Indomitable Women Jean Shinoda Bolen
Guanyin and The Handless Maiden: A Feminine Path of Awakening Deborah Bowman
"Love and Be Silent:" Literary Reflections Josephine Evetts-Secker
Writing for the Watcher: How Anne Frank Wrote the Most Famous Diary Ever Published Jim Kline
"Clearing" Robin van Löben Sels
Philomena: A Film, A Woman, A Reclamation of Respect Jane Alexander Stewart
Irene Hardwicke Olivieri: Closer to Wildness, by Irene Hardwicke Olivieri Susan Amons
Eros and the Shattering Gaze: Transcending Narcissism, by Kenneth A. Kimmel Robin McCoy Brooks
For Love of the Imagination: Interdisciplinary Applications of Jungian Psychoanalysis, by Michael Vannoy Adams Ginette Paris
Article Summaries and Author/Editor Biographies
Nancy Cater, Editor-in-Chief

Nancy Cater, J.D., Ph.D., has been the editor-in-chief of Spring since 2003. During her editorship, she has also created the book publishing imprint, Spring Journal Books, and as publisher, has overseen the acquisition and publication of over one hundred books about depth psychology in the last ten years. She is the author of Electra: Tracing a Feminine Myth through the Western Imagination and is a former appellate court attorney.
1,000 Tongues: A Conversation with Terry Tempest Williams
Patricia Reis, Guest Co-editor

Terry Tempest Williams is an American writer, author of fourteen books, including Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place, and When Women Were Birds: Fifty-four Variations on Voice, the book that was the inspiration for this issue of Spring. Grounded in the arid landscape of her native Utah where she was raised as a Mormon and trained as a wildlife biologist, she is a crucial voice for ecological consciousness, and a fierce advocate for the voiceless. Her writing eloquently probes what is required of us, personally and collectively, for social change and planetary health. With poetic passion and spiritual depth, she reveals how environmental issues become social issues and ultimately matters of justice.

Patricia Reis, a long-time admirer of Terry Tempest William's writing, welcomed the opportunity to have an in-depth interview with Terry via email. In this interview, these two women ponder, inquire, contemplate, and amplify ideas from Williams' When Women Were Birds: Fifty-four Variations on Voice.

Patricia Reis is a writer and author of The Dreaming Way, Daughters of Saturn, Through the Goddess, and the creator/producer of the DVD, Arctic Refuge Sutra. She appeared in the film, Signs Out of Time, by Starhawk and Canadian film maker, Donna Read, a documentary on the life of neolithic archaeologist Marija Gimbutas. She has held positions as faculty, lecturer, and dissertation advisor and has mentored and facilitated many artists and writers in bringing their work to fruition. She divides her time between Portland, Maine and Nova Scotia, and is currently writing a memoir. Her website is www.patriciareis.net where she blogs about the writing life.
"Genesis" and "Clearing"
Two poems by Robin van Löben Sels

Robin van Löben Sels, Ph. D., is a Jungian analyst trained in Zürich and New York. Presently affiliated with the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts, she lives and practices in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe area of New Mexico. She has published poetry in many journals, including Quadrant and Psychological Perspectives, as well as in the book, Wanting a Country for this Weather (2003). Her psychological writings include A Dream in the World: Poetics of Soul in Two Women, Modern and Medieval (2003) as well as several articles in Spring.
Women, Voice, Birds, and Place
Holly J. Hughes

In this essay, poet and nature writer Holly Hughes uses a line from Terry Tempest Williams' When Women Were Birds: Fifty-four Variations on Voice—"solitude is a place"—to explore memories of her own mother, how she found her voice through activism, and how those memories help sustain her own environmental writing and activism. Along the way, she shows how birds have, for her, served as bearers of messages we need to heed and that solitude is a place we need to visit often so we might better hear their quiet voices, too.

Holly J. Hughes, M.F.A., is the author of Sailing by Ravens, co-author of The Pen and The Bell: Mindful Writing in a Busy World, and editor of the award-winning anthology, Beyond Forgetting: Poetry and Prose about Alzheimer's Disease. She has taught writing at Edmonds Community College outside of Seattle, Washington for more than twenty-five years as well as at regional conferences and workshops. Her poems and essays have been published in a variety of literary magazines and anthologies and have been nominated for a Pushcart Prize. Her website is www.hollyjhughes.com.
Dragon Fire: Finding Voice in the Catskill Mountains
Leigh Melander

In the truest fairy tales, magic and beauty are entwined in a merciless embrace, giving great rewards but exacting great costs. As she explores Terry Tempest Williams' idea of how each voice belongs to place, Leigh Melander finds both belonging and longing and a deep sense of voice in her enchanted discovery of home in the dragon-breath-wrapped mountains of the Catskills.

Leigh Melander, Ph.D., works in a variety of creative disciplines and has a doctorate in Cultural Mythology with an emphasis in Depth Psychology from Pacifica Graduate Institute. She has performed internationally in theater, music, and mask and puppetry work; explored the arts as a force for creative change and conflict resolution around the country; spent twenty years helping organizations dream themselves forward and share their visions with the world, and is a member of the Joseph Campbell Foundation Board of Directors. She and her husband opened Spillian: A Place to Revel in the Catskills in October, 2013, and she is currently launching an e-book publishing company, Meandering Press.
Deep Song: Envoicing the Motherline
Marlene A. Schiwy

In her essay, Marlene Schiwy invokes the 15th century Spanish tradition of deep song to explore her maternal legacy. She endeavors to sing the untold depths of sorrow and longing in her motherline throughout generations of war, emigration, and ill health, thereby restor[y]ing and envoicing these beloved liminal presences. Woven into the account of her mothers and grandmothers lives are the larger silence of the feminine voice in culture, and Marlene's own lifelong quest to come into voice.

Marlene A. Schiwy, Ph.D., is a Body Soul Writing instructor and Jungian counselor in Vancouver, Canada. A former professor of literature and women's studies at the City University of New York, she is the author of A Voice of Her Own (1996) and Simple Days (2002). Her series of filmed interviews, Marion Woodman and the Conscious Feminine, was recently released and her current work-in-progress focuses on her lifelong relationship with the archetype of the gypsy. Marlene studied at the International School of Analytical Psychology in Zürich (ISAPZURICH) and conducts Jungian-oriented workshops and retreats, as well as an expressive arts program for women called Body Soul Sundays. Her website is www.marleneschiwy.com.
Shame, Secrecy, and Silence: The Tangled Roots of Childhood and the Suppression of Voice
Joyce Brady

In her 80th year, Joyce Brady, born and raised in Harlem, reflects on her journey to retrieve her natural voice lost after her mother's mental illness and institutionalization, and the subsequent culturally imposed shame, secrecy, and silence she experienced as a result of it. She finds expression through the body in dance, poetry, and the arts, which become symbolic carriers of that original loss and the future unveiling of Spirit.

Joyce Brady, M.S., R.N., is a retired college instructor who has also worked as nurse, art gallery director, photographer, and symbolic consultant. She has facilitated "circles of wise women," using poetry and symbolism to cultivate the authentic voice.
In the Absence of a Mother Tongue
Charlene Spretnak

Charlene Spretnak explores the difficulties women tend to encounter when trying to express their inner perception of the dynamic interrelatedness in the gestalt of any situation yet having to work in an Indo-European language system, in which nominalization (naming things), rather than process and interrelatedness, is central. She discusses the pioneering insights of two French feminist theorists, Claudine Herrmann and Luce Irigaray, into the ways in which female subjectivity is curtailed and how it might be cultivated. Even with the obstacles in a "manstream" culture, Spretnak notes, many exemplary women artists in literature and other arts have brilliantly succeeded in creating from a matrix of female subjectivity.

Charlene Spretnak is the author of seven books, including Lost Goddesses of Early Greece, States of Grace, The Resurgence of the Real, Missing Mary, Relational Reality, and The Spiritual Dynamic in Modern Art. She also edited an anthology, The Politics of Women's Spirituality. In 2012 she received the Demeter Award for lifetime achievement as "one of the premier visionary feminist thinkers of our time" from the Association for the Study of Women and Mythology. She lives in Ojai, California.
Speech Defector: A Child Stutterer Finds Her Voice
Carolyn Butcher

A child stutterer chooses silence to regain her autonomy and observes a world that had been drowned out by words. But once this child becomes a young woman, she is unable to imagine a space for herself within a smooth-talking community, and so she devises a private self-help method that takes her through agonizing pain to final control of her speech. Now a lecturer in English literature, Carolyn Butcher acknowledges that, even though there are residual wounds, her journey to establish her voice was also a pathway to creativity and perception.

Carolyn Butcher is a writer living in Santa Barbara, California, where she teaches Critical Thinking Through Literature at Santa Barbara City College. She has a Ph.D. in English from the University of California, Santa Barbara, where her area of interest was the works of James Joyce. She has presented academic papers at many Joyce conferences in Europe and the United States and her doctoral dissertation examined the experience of reading Joyce's "unreadable text," Finnegans Wake. It is entitled, "Wakeing the Reader: Reading Finnegans Wake." "Speech Defector: A Child Stutterer Finds Her Voice" is excerpted from Carolyn's memoir-in-progress, The Posterity Box, www.theposteritybox.com.
The Fat Lady Sings
Cheryl Fuller

In the preoccupation about obesity culminating in the current so-called War on Obesity, one voice is notably missing—that of the fat person. They are not included on panels determining policy or treatment or legislation concerning them because fat people are not deemed credible. Given this sorry state of affairs, Cheryl Fuller believes now is the time for the fat lady to sing and give voice to the lived experience of being fat in a world which fears and reviles the fat body.

Cheryl Fuller, M.A., Ph.D., is a Jungian psychotherapist and writer in private practice in Belfast, Maine. She has written and taught about Medea and feminism. For the last seven years, she has written a blog, Jung-At-Heart.com. Her current academic research lies at the intersection of fat studies and analytical psychology. She is currently working on a book exploring stigma and anti-fat bias and their effects on the lived experience of fat women in and out of the consulting room.
Sleeping Beauty Wakes Up: Breaking the Spell of Women's Silence
Janice Gary

"Sleeping Beauty" traces the personal and collective history of American women in the last forty years to understand how—forty years after Roe v. Wade—we have ended up here, facing more pushback, more restrictions, and more institutionalized misogyny than ever. Through memoir, essay, and fairy tale, the author examines the silences that enforce—often violently—limitations on women's freedoms and makes the case for the urgent need for women to speak the truth about their lives so that real change can happen.

Janice Gary, M.F.A., is the author of Short Leash: A Memoir of Dog Walking and Deliverance, winner of two Silver 2014 Nautilus Awards, and a 2014 Eric Hoffer Prize for Memoir. Her work has been published in numerous national publications including the Baltimore Review, Literal Latte, and Kaleidoscope. She was on the faculty of the 2013 Summer Study Program at the C.G. Jung Center in New York City ("Dreams and Memoir"), presented a session on "Women's Silences" at the 2014 Associated Writing Program Conferences, and teaches memoir and creative writing at the Writer's Center in Bethesda, Maryland and at Anne Arundel Community College. Her website is www.janicegary.com.
Flying by Words—From the Front Porch to the Podium: Educational Individuation and Creative Endurance
Geraldine Cannon Becker

This article narrates transformational experiences, ranging from the author growing up poor in Southern Appalachia with crossed eyes and suffering a disfiguring accident that caused facial scarring, to her being the only family member to graduate high school and college, along with her facing discrimination in job interviews because of a country accent. She tells of continuing her journey, earning a degree in creative writing and becoming a university professor. This tale of triumph and endurance hinges on finding mentors in school, and not forgetting root connections, while building a stronger—more balanced—foundation in order to help others overcome suffering in their own lives.

Geraldine Cannon Becker, M.F.A., is an Associate Professor of English and Creative Writing at the University of Maine at Fort Kent (UMFK). She publishes creative writing under her maiden name, Geraldine Cannon. Glad Wilderness (2008) is her first book of poetry. A featured "focus on faculty" member, information on her various academic and creative presentations and her publications are hosted by Blake Library, at UMFK (https://www.umfk.edu/library/faculty/scholarship/). Formerly an "at risk" student, she has worked for over ten years with "at risk" learners in the women's literacy group, WE LEARN (Women Expanding: Literacy, Education, Action, Resource, Network), helping to empower disenfranchised women through literacy.
A Legacy of Silences: Transforming the Silence of Absence to a Silence of Presence
Marilyn L. Matthews

This essay follows one woman's journey through the silences of childhood betrayal into a mature silence of forgiveness. Using the ancient myth of Demeter and Persephone, the author postulates that the lack of a myth of the Divine Feminine hinders the full development of the power of voice in both mother and daughter.

Marilyn L. Matthews, M.D., is currently president of the New Mexico Society of Jungian Analysts as well as Chair of the Archetypal Exam Committee for the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts. She is a psychiatrist and a Jungian analyst with a private practice in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Publications include "Reclaiming Women's Voices from Echo's Long Silence," Quadrant, XXVII: 2, Summer, 1997; "Interpretation of ‘The Snow Queen,'" in Psyche's Stories, Vol. II, 1992; "Apocalypse Now: Breakdown or Breakthrough?", Psychological Perspectives, vol. 52, issue 4, 2009. Her primary interest is mentoring women to find their authenticity, authority, and voice.
Beyond Echo and Cassandra: Finding the Voice of Inner Authority
Kaitryn Sheehan Wertz

Despite outer accomplishments that might have amazed our grandmothers, many contemporary women still struggle inwardly to "find our voices." This is a psychological process of developing inner authority and learning to express it authentically. The myths of Echo and Cassandra, lived by contemporary women and visible in Jungian analysis, illustrate the loss and recovery of the authentic female voice.

Kaitryn Sheehan Wertz, M.Ed., L.M.H.C., is a licensed psychotherapist and Jungian analyst practicing and teaching in Jupiter, Florida and Lafayette, Colorado. She is a graduate of the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts (IRSJA) and a faculty member of the Boulder and Florida Jungian Seminars. During the 1970's, Kaitryn was a founding member of Kriplau Yoga Center of Lenox, Massachusetts, and she remains interested in the psychological understanding of yogic and Hindu teachings and symbols. Kaitryn can be contacted through her website www.katewertz.com or at kate@katewertz.com.
Artemis and Bear Mothers: Fiercely Protective, Indomitable Women
Jean Shinoda Bolen

Artemis is the archetype in women whose instincts are fiercely protective of vulnerable others—like a mother bear. Qualities such as focus, competitiveness, sisterhood, an affinity for nature and animals, brotherly-egalitarian relationships with men, plus an indomitable spirit are Artemis qualities in feminists, environmentalists, and activists. The myth of Atalanta, a mortal woman who was "under the protection of Artemis" provides insights into this archetype, as do the contemporary examples mentioned in this article. Actress and Special Envoy of the UN High Commission on Human Rights, Angelina Jolie, in her personal life and screen roles as an action star, embodies this archetype as does fictional Katniss Everdeen in the Hunger Games trilogy.

Jean Shinoda Bolen, M.D., a member of the C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, is the author of The Tao of Psychology, Goddesses in Everywoman, Gods in Everyman, Ring of Power, Crossing to Avalon, Goddesses in Older Women, The Millionth Circle, Like a Tree, Crones Don't Whine, Close to the Bone, Urgent Message From Mother, Moving Toward the Millionth Circle, and most recently, Artemis: The Indomitable Spirit in Everywoman. She is a Distinguished Life Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and a former clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California at San Francisco. She maintains a private practice in Mill Valley, California. Her website is www.jeanbolen.com.
Guanyin and The Handless Maiden: A Feminine Path of Awakening
Deborah Bowman

The Chinese story of Guanyin and the European tale of The Handless Maiden illustrate a universal path for women to heal the wounds of patriarchy and recover wholeness. In their mythical journeys both figures face severance and solitude before transformation in loving relationship that is beyond personal boundaries. The modern day stories of Aung San Suu Kyi, Mary Oliver, and Sonia Sotomayor reflect examples of wise women who have walked a similar path of individuation and compassionate action.

Deborah Bowman, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist, photographer, and professor at Naropa University where she founded the Transpersonal Counseling Psychology and Wilderness Therapy programs. She has been in private practice as a psychotherapist for twenty-seven years. Deborah served on the board of the C.G. Jung Society of Colorado for nine years, is certified as a Gestalt therapist, and a trained meditation instructor. She is the author of The Female Buddha: Discovering the Heart of Liberation and Love (2012), The Luminous Buddha: Image and Word (2007), and When Your Spouse Comes Out: A Straight Mate's Recovery Manual (2007). For four years she has published and presented articles on Buddhism and psychology at the International Association of Buddhist Universities conferences in Thailand. For more information about her work, see www.thefemalebuddha, www.luminousbuddha, and www.thefemalebuddha.wordpress.com.
"Love and Be Silent:" Literary Reflections
Josephine Evetts-Secker

"Love and be Silent" follows the theme of the historical silencing of women's voices through literary texts. Beginning with Telemachus' muzzling of his mother in Homer's Odyssey, the personal-domestic and the public-political implications of this silencing are explored, as well as ways in which women have subverted their enforced silence and made their voices heard in and through the silence.

Josephine Evetts-Secker is a Jungian analyst in Britain, who studied at the University of London. She is an ordained priest in the Anglican Church, and a former professor of English literature at the University of Calgary. A graduate of the Jung Institute in Zürich, she has served on the council of the London Independent Group of Analytical Psychologists' (IGAP) training program and lectures regularly at the International School of Analytical Psychology in Zürich (ISAPZURICH). She is the President of the Association for Graduates in Analytical Psychology (AGAP), formed sixty years ago for Jungian analysts trained in Zürich. She is the author of At Home in the Language of the Soul: Exploring Jungian Discourse and Psyche's Grammar of Transformation (Spring Journal Books, 2012).
Writing for the Watcher: How Anne Frank Wrote the Most Famous Diary Ever Published
Jim Kline

The Diary of Anne Frank is the most well-known published diary. It is also considered one of the most sophisticated and well-written personal memoirs by formal writing standards, an astonishing fact since it was written by a fourteen-year-old girl during one of the most tumultuous historical periods and under the most horrific living conditions. What follows is an attempt to explain how Anne Frank was able to write a diary that is now considered a literary triumph and an inspiration for countless millions.

Jim Kline earned his Ph.D. in Psychology with a Jungian Studies Specialization from Saybrook University, San Francisco. He has contributed articles to Spring Journal, Psychological Perspectives, and the San Francisco Jung Library Journal. Most recently, he served as Dean of Humanities at Mt. Hood Community College in Gresham, Oregon. He currently teaches as an adjunct instructor for the Engaged Humanities and the Creative Life program affiliated with Pacifica Graduate Institute. He lives in the Pacific Northwest with his wife Beatriz and their four cats: Bastet, Fiona, Clarissa, and Little Red.
Philomena: A Film, A Woman, A Reclamation of Respect
Reviewed Jane Alexander Stewart

Jane Alexander Stewart, Ph.D., a psychologist in Los Angeles, writes about mythic themes in film. Her popular essay, "The Feminine Hero in The Silence of the Lambs," originally published in The San Francisco C.G. Jung Library Journal (Vol. 14, No. 3, 1995), also appeared in The Soul of Popular Culture (1998) and The Presence of the Feminine in Film (2008) as well as in The British Association of Psychological Types Quarterly (1996) and the National Organization of Women Times. Currently, she is a staff writer reviewing films for http://newtopiamagazine.wordpress.com. A collection of her reviews and other writings can be found at her website, www.Cinemashrink.com. She can be reached at: Jane@Cinemashrink.com.
Irene Hardwicke Olivieri: Closer to Wildness, by Irene Hardwicke Olivieri
Reviewed by Susan Amons

Susan Amons is a nationally recognized artist residing in Maine. A graduate of the Massachusetts College of Art, she has received twenty Artist's Fellowships and is a member of the prestigious Peregrine Press in Portland, Maine and the venerable National Association of Women Artists in New York. Her art is represented by numerous galleries on the east coast and is included in many museum collections. For more information see: www.susanamons.com.
Eros and the Shattering Gaze: Transcending Narcissism, by Kenneth A. Kimmel
Reviewed by Robin McCoy Brooks

Robin McCoy Brooks, M.A. and Trainer, Educator and Practitioner of Group Psychotherapy, Sociometry and Psychodrama, is one of the founding members of the New School for Analytical Psychology in Seattle, Washington. She is a Jungian psychoanalyst in private practice. Her written works attempt to clarify her interest in the phenomenology of subject formation, most especially the correspondences between the physical and metaphysical realms. Her interests include the intricate relationship between psychoanalysis and philosophy, political activism, post-Lacanian thought, and neuro-diversity.
For Love of the Imagination: Interdisciplinary Applications of Jungian Psychoanalysis, by Michael Vannoy Adams
Reviewed by Ginette Paris

Ginette Paris, Ph.D., is a core faculty at Pacifica Graduate Institute. She is the author of several books that exemplify the archetypal perspective, among which are Wisdom of the Psyche: Depth Psychology after Neuroscience (2007) and Heartbreak: New Approaches to Healing (2011).