Nancy Cater, J.D., Ph.D., is the editor (since 2003) of Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture, the oldest Jungian psychology journal in the world, and the author of Electra: Tracing a Feminine Myth through the Western Imagination. She is the publisher of Spring Journal Books, which specializes in publications by leading scholars in depth psychology, the humanities, and cultural studies. She is an Affiliate Member of the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts, a former appellate court attorney, and lives in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Guest Editor Bio:
Riccardo Bernardini, Ph.D., Psy.D., serves as Scientific Secretary of the Eranos Foundation. As Adjunct Professor at the Turin University Faculty of Psychology, Italy, he previously taught Analytical Psychology and Educational Psychology. He is an Associate of the Associazione per la Ricerca in Psicologia Analitica (ARPA) in Turin and a Member of the Board of The Fellow Traveller Foundation in Lugano. His research interests focus on the history of the Eranos phenomenon. His writings in this field include Carl Gustav Jung a Eranos 1933-1952, edited with Gian Piero Quaglino and Augusto Romano (2007), and Jung a Eranos. Il progetto della psicologia complessa (2011), with an up-coming English edition (Jung at Eranos—The Complex Psychology Project). He also brought to publication Carl Gustav Jung’s The Solar Myths and Opicinus de Canistris—Notes of the Seminar Given at Eranos in 1943, edited with Gian Piero Quaglino and Augusto Romano (2014), which was preceded by a number of studies in The Journal of Analytical Psychology (2010–2013), as well as the Carl Gustav Jung–Henry Corbin correspondence (2013). He is now editing for the Eranos Foundation, Emma von Pelet’s Analytic Diaries, among other works. Since 2006, he has served as co-editor of the Eranos Yearbooks series, together with Fabio Merlini, and, since 2012, of Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture.
Author Bios (in order of appearance)
The Psychological Background of Eranos
Olga Frobe-Kapteyn was born on October 19, 1881 in London to Dutch parents from a culturally diverse background. She moved to Zurich in 1900, where she studied at the School of Applied Arts and then at the University of Zürich. In 1909, she married the orchestra conductor, Iwan Fröbe, with whom she lived in Berlin and then, from 1914, in Zürich. She became widow of Iwan Fröbe in 1915. In 1920, together with her daughter, Bettina Gertrude, she moved to the South of Switzerland and settled down in the charming Casa Gabriella (Gabriella House) in Ascona-Moscia, on the shores of Lake Maggiore. It was there that, during a long period of solitude, she familiarized herself with oriental philosophies, meditation, and depth psychology. In 1928, she built a lecture hall near her Casa Gabriella. It was called, Casa Eranos (Eranos House), and was used as “a place of encounter and experience,” where Eastern and Western philosophies could meet. In 1933, Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn founded there the Eranos Conferences, which attracted some of the most influential scholars of the twentieth century. In the following years, she focused on further enriching the Conferences, which were becoming like a “ritual,” a “dance,” which started anew each year, but always with different “dancers.” From the mid-1930s, initially at Carl Gustav Jung’s request, Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn also travelled to European and American libraries—in London, Paris, Rome, Munich, Zürich, Athens, Stuttgart, Oxford, Crete, Berlin, Bonn, Trier, and New York, among others—in order to acquire symbolical images. She thus formed a rich archive, which became very important for the research of many scholars. The Eranos Archive for Research in Symbolism is now part of the collections of the Warburg Institute (University of London). Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn edited the first thirty Eranos Yearbooks (1933–1961) and dedicated all her life to nurture her cultural enterprise. She passed away in Casa Gabriella on April 25, 1962.
Eranos: A Space and a Time for Thought
Fabio Merlini is Regional Director of the Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (SFIVET), Lugano, Switzerland, and serves as the President of the Eranos Foundation. In 1998, Merlini was nominated privat-docent at the Université de Lausanne, Switzerland, where he taught Philosophy of Culture. Subsequently, from 1999 to 2003, he taught Systemic Philosophy and was appointed professor of Epistemology of the Human Sciences at the Université de Lausanne. In 2003, he was nominated adjunct professor of Communication Ethics at the Universitŕ degli Studi dell’Insubria in Varese, Italy, where he taught until 2011. From 1996 to 2000, Merlini co-directed the Groupe de Recherche sur l’Ontologie de l’Histoire at the Husserl Archives of the École Normale Supérieure, Paris. His publications include Aprčs la fin de l’histoire (1998), Historicité et spatialité (2001), Une histoire de l’avenir (2004), La comunicazione interrotta. Etica e politica nel tempo della “rete” (2004), L’efficienza insignificante. Saggio sul disorientamento (2009; translated into French as L’époque de la performance insignifiante. Réflexions sur la vie désorientée, 2011), and Schizotopies. Essai sur l’espace de la mobilisation (2013). Merlini served as editor of Nuove tecnologie e nuove sensibilitŕ. Comunicazione, identitŕ, formazione (2005), Identitŕ e alteritŕ. Tredici esercizi di comprensione (co-edited with Elena Boldrini, 2006), and Per una cultura della formazione al lavoro. Studi e analisi sulla crisi dell’identitŕ professionale (co-edited with Lorenzo Bonoli, 2010). Merlini is co-author of the Cahier de l’Herne dedicated to Friedrich Nietzsche on the 100th anniversary of his death (2000) and of La philosophie au risque de la promesse (2004).
Eranos: A Counter Current to the Common Intellectual History of the 20th Century?
Hans Thomas Hakl
Hans Thomas Hakl was born in Graz, Austria in 1947. He earned his J.D. degree in 1970. Hakl founded an international import-export company with an emphasis in the Far East, and was a partner in a Swiss esoteric publishing firm. Since 1990, he has focused exclusively on researching, writing, and publishing. In 1996, he founded Gnostika, a German academic-esoteric magazine where he now serves as co-editor. He has edited works by Julius Evola, Eliphas Lévi, Gérard Encausse (“Papus”), Maria De Naglowska, Hans Freimark, and others. He is also a contributor to the Dictionary of Gnosis and Western Esotericism (2003) and to the new edition of the Encyclopedia of Religions (2005). Hakl attended a series of conferences organized by the Associazione Amici di Eranos in Ascona between 1995 and 2000 and by the Verein zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Tagungen von Eranos in 2001 and 2002. His main work, Der verborgene Geist von Eranos. Unbekannte Begegnungen von Wissenschaft und Esoterik. Eine alternative Geistesgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts (2001), was dedicated to the Eranos phenomenon. The book was subsequently republished in English in a revised and expanded edition as Eranos—An Alternative Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century (2012). Among his other writings on Eranos are “Der verborgene Geist von Eranos,” in Gnostika (2001), “Eranos im Spiegel der Geistesgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts,” in Archaeus (2002), “Plauderei über C.G. Jung und die Eranos-Tagungen,” in Jahresbericht, published by the Psychologischer Club (2002/2003), “Eranos im Spiegel der Geistesgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts,” in Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsforschung (2004). He also prefaced Riccardo Bernardini’s Jung a Eranos. Il progetto della psicologia complessa (2011).
American Eranos Volume: Introduction
Carl Gustav Jung
The Swiss psychologist, Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961), joined Eranos at its inception and took part in the Eranos Conferences for twenty years. He gave a total of fourteen talks, from 1933 up to 1951. These were published in the Eranos Yearbooks. They were then revised, expanded, and published in the Psychologische Abhandlungen (“Psychological Treatises”)—except for his last essay, On Synchronicity (1951), which was not changed from the original version published in the Yearbook—and, later, in his Collected Works. Jung’s annual talks were looked forward to each year. He also gave an impromptu seminar on “The Solar Myths and Opicinus de Canistris” in 1943. He participated at Eranos for the last time in 1952, but only as a listener. Two commemorative Yearbooks were published in his honor on his seventieth birthday (1945) and seventy-fifth birthday (1950). The Eranos Archive for Research in Symbolism also served as an indispensible iconographic base for important studies of his, such as Psychology and Alchemy (1944). In her first talk at Eranos, The Creative Phases in Jung’s Life (1971), Aniela Jaffé read some passages of The Red Book, still unpublished at that time. Likewise, she gave her last talk in August 1975, C. G. Jung and the Eranos Conferences, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth. It was at Eranos that the contracts for the American, English, and German editions of Jung’s Collected Works were drawn up in 1947 and that, in August 1956, the project for his memoirs, Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1961), became a reality.
Carl Gustav Jung: His Life Before His Works
Gian Piero Quaglino
Gian Piero Quaglino, Full Professor of Social Psychology, Dynamic Psychology, and Psychology of Adult Education, served as Director of the Department of Psychology (1993–1997), President of the Consorzio Interuniversitario sulla Formazione (COINFO, 1994–1999), and Dean of the Faculty of Psychology (2003–2008) at Turin University (Italy), where he taught from 1977–2010. In 2010, he founded Vivenzia, a school of adult education devoted to “self-cultivation.” For the publisher Raffaello Cortina, he directed the “Individuo, Gruppo e Organizzazione” editorial series (1992–2012). He has written over 200 works on organizational psychology and adult education, including La vita organizzativa. Difese, collusioni e ostilitŕ nelle relazioni di lavoro (2004), Fare formazione. I fondamenti della formazione e i nuovi traguardi (new ed., 2005), Scritti di formazione 1–5 (1999, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2010), and more recently, La scuola della vita. Manifesto della terza formazione (2011). He also edited Leadership. Nuovi profili di leader per nuovi scenari organizzativi (1999), Autoformazione. Autonomia e responsabilitŕ per la formazione di sé nell’etŕ adulta (2004), Scene di leadership. Come il cinema insegna a essere leader, with Claudia Piccardo (2006), and Formazione. I metodi (2014). In Jungian studies, his work includes A spasso con Jung (2005), A colazione da Jung (2006), and Nel giardino di Jung (2010), co-authored with Augusto Romano, Carl Gustav Jung a Eranos 1933–1952 (2007), co-authored with Augusto Romano and Riccardo Bernardini, C. G. Jung’s Aforismi 1–2 (2012 and 2013), co-edited with Augusto Romano, and The Solar Myths and Opicinus de Canistris—Notes of the Seminar given at Eranos in 1943 (2014), co-edited with Riccardo Bernardini and Augusto Romano.
The Analytical Leitmotif of the Eranos Conferences
Born in 1945, Antonio Vitolo, Ph.D., is a training analyst of the Associazione Italiana di Psicologia Analitica (AIPA) and a member since 1978 of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP). In the AIPA he also served as secretary of analytical training (1992–1995) and as president (2006–2010). He taught at Universitŕ di Roma “Sapienza” (1990–2006) and at the Seconda Universitŕ degli Studi di Napoli (1996–2003). He served as chairman of the Tenth International Congress of Analytical Psychology, held in Berlin in 1986. He also lectured at the IAAP Congresses in Rio de Janeiro (2000) and Montreal (2010), as well as at several other IAAP conferences and seminars. Among his works, are Un esilio impossibile. Neumann tra Freud e Jung (1990), “Polythéismes des ręves. Besoin de laďcité et de tolérance: Freud, Jung, Neumann,” in Monothéismes et modernités (1996), and Le psicoterapie (1997). He also edited Radici della cura laica (1997), Nascita, morte, trasformazione. Tra psicologia clinica e psicoterapia (2002), and Menti eminenti in sogno (2007). Together with Luigi Aurigemma, Vitolo edited Carl Gustav Jung’s works in Italian for Bollati Boringhieri publishing house from 1977 to 1995. He translated into Italian Jung’s The Concept of the Collective Unconscious and Concerning Rebirth (CW 9–1), Erich Neumann’s The Great Mother—An Analysis of the Archetype, and Marie-Louise von Franz’s Psyche and Matter. In 2012 he founded the journal, Tempo d’analisi. Paradigmi junghiani comparati, where he is now editor. Vitolo was a research guest at Eranos in 1987, 1989, and 1993. In 1992, at Rudolf Ritsema’s invitation, he gave a lecture at Eranos on the topic, “The Ethic of Image.” In the same year, he authored a chapter on the Eranos Conferences for the Trattato di Psicologia Analitica, edited by Aldo Carotenuto.
Eranos as Dream
Stephen Aizenstat, Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, is the Chancellor and Founding President of Pacifica Graduate Institute (Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.). His book, Dream Tending (2009), describes applications of dreamwork in relation to health and healing, nightmares, the World’s Dream, relationships, and the creative process. Aizenstat’s methodologies extend traditional dream work to the vision of an animated world, where living images in dream are experienced as embodied and originating in the psyche of Nature as well as that of persons. His other recent publications include Imagination & Medicine—The Future of Healing in an Age of Neuroscience, co-edited with Robert Bosnak (2009), “Dream Tending and Tending the World,” in Ecotherapy—Healing with Nature in Mind (2009), and “Soul-Centered Education: An Interview with Stephen Aizenstat,” in Reimagining Education—Essays on Reviving the Soul of Learning, with Nancy Treadway Galindo (2009). His major work, Dream Tending, recently appeared also in Italian as Vegliare il sogno. Teoria e pratica del Dream Tending (2013). Inspired by James Hillman, Aizenstat attended an Eranos meeting for the first time in the mid-90’s. In 1999, he presented a paper at Eranos on the topic, “Dream Tending: Working the Intersection between Psyche and World.” He also lectured at Eranos in recent years on issues such as “Fragility of the World’s Dream” (2011), “The Dangers and Opportunity of Cyberspace: A New Vision of Global Dreaming” (2012), and “The Pacifica Story: Money as Psychic Libido” (2013).
Encounters at Ascona
The Romanian historian of religions, Mircea Eliade (1907–1986), joined Eranos in 1950, on Henry Corbin’s invitation. He gave a total of thirteen talks, from 1950 up to 1967. The Eranos Archive for Research in Symbolism served as an iconographic base for important studies of his, such as The Forge and the Crucible—The Origins and Structure of Alchemy (1956). He recollected memories of the Eranos gatherings in his autobiographical works, Mémoire II. Les moissons du solstice (1937–1960), Fragments d’un journal II (1945–1969), and L’épreuve du labyrinth (1978). He also published some articles about Eranos, such as “Eranos” (1954), “Les danseurs passent, la danse reste” (1955), and “Encounters at Ascona” (1960).
On the Edge of the Round Table: Eranos and Theological Studies
David L. Miller
David L. Miller, Ph.D., is the Watson-Ledden Professor of Religion, Emeritus, at Syracuse University, New York, and a Core Faculty Member in Mythological Studies (now retired) at Pacifica Graduate Institute, Santa Barbara, California. In 2002, he was made an affiliate member of the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts (IRSJA) and in 2004 he was elected to be an honorary member of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP). He is the author of five books and more than one hundred articles and book chapters. His books include Gods and Games—Toward a Theology of Play (1970 and 2014) and The New Polytheism—Rebirth of the Gods and Goddesses (1974). Miller first attended the Eranos Conferences in 1969 and was a member of the Eranos Circle from 1975 until 1988. He was present at Eranos fifteen times during this period and he lectured at the Conferences nine times. His presentations explored the intersections of classical mythology, depth psychology, history of religions, and postmodern literary theory (Eranos Yearbooks 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, and 57). His particular conversation partners at Eranos were Henry Corbin, James Hillman, and Wolfgang Giegerich. Three of Miller’s books grew out of his lectures at Eranos: Christs—Meditations on Archetypal Images in Christian Theology (1981 and 2005), Three Faces of God—Traces of the Trinity in Literature and Life (1986 and 2005), and Hells and Holy Ghosts—A Theopoetics of Christian Belief (1989 and 2004). He presented a paper on Eranos at the Sixteenth International Congress of the IAAP, held in Barcelona in 2004.
Eranos: The Study of Religion as a Religious Phenomenon
Bernardo Nante was born in 1955 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he lives today with his spouse and two sons. He received his Ph.D. in Philosophy and Higher Studies in Psychology, Oriental Studies, Mathematics, and Economics. Nante is Full Professor of Philosophy of Religion at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature and of General and Compared Mythology at the School of Oriental Studies, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has served as visiting professor at various national and international universities and institutions, including the UNESCO Mobile Chair Edgar Morin in Complex Thought (Universidad del Salvador). Currently, Nante serves as the Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires, and as the President of the Fundación Vocación Humana and its Institute of Jungian Studies. He is the author of numerous works on the correlation between philosophy, anthropology, religion, and, in particular, the alchemical sources of C. G. Jung. He has been involved in the publication of the Spanish editions of Jung’s Collected Works and The Red Book: Liber Novus (2010). He published El Libro Rojo de Jung. Claves para la comprensión de una obra inexplicable (2010), the first major analysis of The Red Book. Nante’s work was recently translated into Italian by Bollati Boringhieri as Guida dalla lettura del Libro Rosso di C.G. Jung (2011).
Archetypes and Androgynes at Eranos
Moshe Idel is the Max Cooper Professor of Jewish Thought, Emeritus at The Hebrew University and Senior Researcher at the Hartman Institute, Jerusalem. He has been a member of the Israeli Academy of Sciences and Humanities since 2006 and was recipient of the Bialik Prize (1994), the Gershom Scholem Prize (1995), the Israel Prize for Jewish Thought (1999), and the Rothschild Prize (2012). Currently, he serves as President of the World Union of Jewish Studies. His areas of interest include the history and phenomenology of Jewish mysticism, Renaissance thought, and the history of scholarship in religion. His writings include The Mystical Experience of Abraham Abulafia (1987), Studies in Ecstatic Kabbalah (1988), Language, Torah, and Hermeneutics in Abraham Abulafia (1989), Golem—Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions on the Artificial Anthropoid (1990), English Kabbalah—New Perspectives (1990), Hasidism between Ecstasy and Magic (1995), Messianic Mystics (2000), Absorbing Perfections: Kabbalah and Interpretation (2002), Kabbalah and Eros (2005), Ben: Sonship and Jewish Mysticism (2008), Kabbalah in Italy 1280–1510 (2011), Saturn’s Jews: On Witches’ Sabbat and Sabbateanism (2011), and Mircea Eliade—From Magic to Myth (2014). In the years 1993 to 2013, Idel lectured at a series of conferences organized by the Associazione Amici di Eranos. In 2008, he gave a lecture at Eranos entitled, “Eros: Paths of Unity and Polarity in Kabbalah.”
The Time of Eranos
The French philosopher and scholar of Islam, Henry Corbin (1903–1978), joined Eranos in 1949, on Louis Massignon’s advice. He gave a total of twenty-five talks, from 1949 up to 1976. Another essay appeared in a commemorative Eranos Yearbook, which was published in honor of Carl Gustav Jung’s seventy-fifth birthday (1950). Among his major works, which were originally presented at Eranos, are: Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn al-‘Arabi (1958), Temple and Contemplation (1981), and The Paradox of Monotheism (1981). Based upon the Eranos model, in 1974 Corbin founded, together with Gilbert Durand, Antoine Faivre, Richard Stauffer, and Robert de Chateaubriant, the Université Saint Jean de Jérusalem (USJJ) in Vaucelles, France. He recollected memories of the Eranos gatherings in his autobiographical work, Post-Scriptum biographique ŕ un Entretien philosophique (1981). In September 1951, Corbin wrote an esoteric poem dedicated “To Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn.” He also published some articles about Eranos, “De l’Iran ŕ Eranos” (1955) and “The Time of Eranos” (1956), as well as an eulogy for Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn and Jung, “Eranos: Freedom and Spontaneity” (1962).
Remembrances of Eranos
Michel Cazenave was born in 1942 in Toulouse, France, where he worked for more than thirty years at France Culture, France’s national cultural radio. He was a Humanities student at the École Normale Supérieure (ULM) and served as president of the Groupe d’Études C.G. Jung in Paris and of the Cercle Francophone de Recherche et d’Information sur L’Oeuvre de C.G. Jung (CEFRI Jung). Cazenave oversaw the French edition of Jung’s collected works for Albin Michel publisher. He is author of more than fifty books, five of which focus on C. G. Jung and the remainder inspired by him. Cazenave feels he owes Jung a great debt based on his discovery in early adolescence of the Swiss doctor’s work, an experience that literally saved his life. He has dedicated several works to Jung, including Jung, l’expérience intérieure (1997), Ŕ la rencontre de… Carl Gustav Jung (2011), Jung revisité (volume one, La réalité de l’âme, 2011, and volume two, Jung et le religieux, 2012). Among the Cahiers de l’Herne series, Cazenave edited the 21st volume, dedicated to Charles de Gaulle (1973 and 1985), the 43rd volume, dedicated to André Malraux (1982), and the 46th volume, dedicated to Jung (1984). Cazenave attended Eranos for the first time at the end of the 1970’s. He has studied in depth the work of Gershom Scholem, Henry Corbin, James Hillman, Pierre Hadot, and Gilbert Durand, the last three with whom he cultivated a mutual and uninterrupted friendship. He recently edited Henry Corbin’s unpublished manuscript on Jung given to him by Stella Corbin: Autour de Jung. Le bouddhisme et la Sophia (2014).
The Missing Link: From Jung to Hadot and Vice Versa
Romano Mŕdera is Full Professor of Moral Philosophy and of Philosophical Practices at the Universitŕ degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy. He previously taught at the Universitŕ della Calabria and at the Universitŕ Ca’ Foscari in Venice. He is a member of the Associazione Italiana di Psicologia Analitica (AIPA), of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP), and of the Laboratorio Analitico delle Immagini (LAI), a professional association of sandplay analysts. He is on the editorial board of the Rivista di Psicologia Analitica. He was among the founding members of the Open Seminars of Philosophical Practices at the University of Venice, at the University of Milano-Bicocca, and at other universities, of the Post-Graduate School of Philosophical Practices “Philo,” and of the Society for Philosophically Oriented Biographic Analysis (SABOF). His writings include Identitŕ e feticismo (1977), Dio il Mondo (1989), L’alchimia ribelle (1997), C.G. Jung. Biografia e teoria (1998), L’animale visionario (1999), La filosofia come stile di vita, written with L. V. Tarca (2003) and translated into English as Philosophy as Life Path—Introduction to Philosophical Practices (2007), Il nudo piacere di vivere (2006), La carta del senso. Psicologia del profondo e vita filosofica (2012), and Approaching the Navel of the Darkened Soul—Depth Psychology and Philosophical Practices (2013). The works of Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Neumann, and Pierre Hadot were seminal not only for his profession as an analyst and as a philosophy professor, but, above all, for his own life.
Non-Duality: The Deep Challenge of Bringing Together Ancient and Modern Ways of Knowledge
in an Epistemic World View
Grazia Shogen Marchianň
Grazia Shogen Marchianň is a specialist in East-West aesthetic, philosophic, and religious studies, and former Professor of Comparative Aesthetics and History and Civilizations of Eastern Asia at the University of Siena (Arezzo, Italy). She is author and editor of several scholarly books, as well as a large number of essays, conference papers, and articles in Italian and English on Indian philosophy, Shingon esoteric Buddhism, and transcultural aesthetics. She is recipient of a doctorate honoris causa from The Open University, Edinburgh, and Founding President of the Elémire Zolla International Research Society (AIREZ). Marchianň is the editor of Elémire Zolla’s Collected Works for Marsilio publishing house, Venice, and keeper of his intellectual heritage acknowledged by the UNESCO National Italian Commission as “bene culturale dell’umanitŕ.” On the tenth anniversary of Zolla’s death, she promoted an international conference in Montepulciano, Italy (May 29–31, 2012), on the topic, “Labyrinths of the Mind—Visions of the World,” convening scholars from Asia, Europe, and the United States. The trilingual proceedings volume by the same title was published by Societŕ Bibliografica Toscana in 2012. She now leads a group of young researchers engaged in a systematic examination of Zolla’s work and thought. She recently promoted the international seminar, “Seeds of Human Ecology in the Holistic Thought of Elémire Zolla,” along with the Eranos Foundation, the Fundación Vocación Humana, and the Spineto Abbey (February 28–March 2, 2014). Within the Spineto. Incontri e Studi program, Marchianň is in charge of the Spring and Fall interdisciplinary encounters. She is presently working on the entanglement of living nature, human mind, and consciousness viewed from a trans-disciplinary cognitive perspective.
Eranos and its Meaning
The Swiss biologist and zoologist, Adolf Portmann (1897–1982), served as a Member of the Board of the first Eranos Foundation, created by Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn in 1943 and active until 1955, together with Tadeus Reichstein, Hans Conrad Bänziger, and Walter Keller-Staub. When the Eranos Foundation was reestablished in August 1961, Adolf Portmann was nominated its first President, as stipulated by Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn’s will. At Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn’s death (1962), the guidance of Eranos was thus passed on to Portmann, who was assisted by Rudolf Ritsema. Portmann edited twenty Eranos Yearbooks (1962–1981), fifteen of them with Rudolf Ritsema (1967–1981). He gave a total of thirty-three talks, from 1946 to 1977. Another of his essays appeared in a commemorative Eranos Yearbook, which was published in honor of Carl Gustav Jung’s seventy-fifth birthday (1950). He collected some of his many Eranos essays in three books: Das Tier als soziales Wesen (1953), Biologie und Geist (1956), and Aufbruch der Lebensforschung (1965). He also published some articles about Eranos, such as “Eranos” (1955), “Vom Sinn und Auftrag der Eranos-Tagungen” (1961), “Eranos. Das Werk und die Aufgabe” (1963), “Vom Sinn der Eranos Tagungen,” written along with Rudolf Ritsema (1978), and “Um die Erhaltung von Eranos” (undated).
The scholar of the I Ching, Rudolf Ritsema (1918–2006), served as the President of the Eranos Foundation from 1982 to 1994. He cooperated with Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn and Adolf Portmann in organizing the Conferences beginning in 1956. Ritsema edited twenty-seven Eranos Yearbooks, fifteen with Adolf Portmann (1967–1981) and four with Stephen L. Karcher (1989–1996). He gave a total of four talks, from 1987 up to 1997. Among his presentations and writings about Eranos are: “Eranos: Selbstdarstellung einer Idee in der Zeit” (1961), “Vom Sinn der Eranos Tagungen,” written with Adolf Portmann (1978), “The Origins and Opus of Eranos: Reflections at the 55th Conference” (1987), “Encompassing Versatility: Keystone of the Eranos Project” (1988), “Esprit et symboles. Le projet Eranos de traduction du Yi Jing,” written with Stephen L. Karcher (1994), “Images of the Unknown: The Eranos I Ching Project 1989–1997,” written with Shantena Augusto Sabbadini (1997), and “The Periplus of the Eranos Archetype” (2002, unpublished). Ritsema translated and edited the Eranos I Ching (preceded by ten articles published in Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture between 1970 and 1984), which appeared in different languages: Italian (in collaboration with Shantena Augusto Sabbadini, 1996 and 1997), German (in collaboration with Hansjakob Schneider, 2000), French (in collaboration with Pierre Gaudissart and Imelda Gaudissart, 2003), and English (in collaboration with Stephen L. Karcher, 1990–1991 and 1994, and with Shantena Augusto Sabbadini, 2005).
The Enlightening Role of Adolf Portmann
Sigurd von Boletzky
Sigurd von Boletzky, retired member of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), is a zoologist and marine biologist, and a former student (1961–1964) and research collaborator (1965–1982) with Adolf Portmann. His work includes Das Mittelmeer (co-authored with Felix Karlinger, Hans Kühner, Franca Magnani, and Alfred Pletsch, 1980) and the scientific edition of Georg Pfeffer’s The Cephalopoda of the Plankton Expedition (1993). In addition to articles on the biology, development, and evolution of cephalopod mollusks, von Boletzky published several contributions on Portmann’s biography, work, and teaching in Grosse Schweizer und Schweizerinnen (1990), I Protagonisti (1995), Revue Européenne des Sciences Sociales (1999), and in Adolf Portmann’s Lebensforschung und Tiergestalt (2006). At present, he is working on unpublished material from the Adolf Portmann Archives, Basel University Library. Von Boletzky is particularly interested in Portmann’s scientific legacy prior to 1946. He considers Portmann’s early thinking critical to understanding the research landscape of mid-20th century biology, as well as Portmann’s reluctance to engage in a fashionable “mainstream biology.” He believes that the questions about the mutual influences between Portmann and Eranos beginning in the late 1940s, as well as Portmann’s debate with Carl Gustav Jung about the “inheritance” of psychic features, can best be approached if the situation at the outset is clearly recognized. Subsequently, specific sensitive issues, such as epistemological questions regarding Portmann’s “critical finalism” and its possible significance to a modern teleonomy, are then amenable to study.
Eranos, Synchronicity, and the I Ching: A Personal Journey
Shantena Augusto Sabbadini
Shantena Augusto Sabbadini, born 1943 in Como, Italy, is a physicist, philosopher, teacher, and translator. He worked as a quantum physicist at the University of Milano and, while at the University of California, contributed to the first discovery of a black hole. He is Associate Director of the Pari Center for New Learning (Pari, Tuscany) and Lecturer at the Schumacher College, Devon, United Kingdom. He has interests in issues of mind, matter, and consciousness, and has translated into Italian several Oriental classics such as the I Ching (1996 and 2005), the Upanishad (1997), and the Dhammapada (1995), and particularly, the works of the Taoist masters, such as the Tao Te Ching (2009), the Chuang Tzu (2012), and the Lieh Tzu (2014). He also translated into Italian works by Marie-Louise von Franz (Le tracce del futuro. Divinazione e tempo, 1986), Joseph Campbell (Le figure del mito, 1991), Elémire Zolla (Incontro con l’androgino, 1995), David Bohm (Universo, Mente, Materia, 1996), Rabindranath Tagore (Gitanjali, 2006), and others. Among his own books are Tao. I racconti della Via (1996), Buchi neri. L’oscura energia del cosmo (2003), and Tao Te Ching: A Guide to the Interpretation of the Foundational Book of Taoism(2013). From 1994 to 2002, he was associated with the Eranos Foundation as a scientific advisor and collaborated with Rudolf Ritsema and Christa Robinson in facilitating the Eranos Round Table Sessions. He regularly gave “Introductions to the I Ching” and occasionally lectured on topics such as “Dreams and Divination,” “In and Out of Time,” and others. He coauthored with Rudolf Ritsema two I Ching translations: I Ching. Il libro della versatilitŕ (1996) and The Original I Ching Oracle (2005).
Our Relation to Nature Determines our Worldview—Eranos and Today’s Great Cultural Challenge
HRH Princess Irene of the Netherlands
Born in 1939, HRH Princess Irene of the Netherlands has for many years been involved in the revaluation and the reconnection of the human-nature relationship, as well as in reconnecting people to their inner nature. She is the founder and president of several organizations, including NatuurCollege, NatureWise (which connects Dutch school children with nature), Bergplaas Nature Reserve, and Isis Transcultural Leadership. HRH Princess Irene is an Honourable Member of the Club of Budapest and Patron of the Irish Peatland Conservancy Council. She also is involved in training, lecturing, coaching, publishing, and media activities, and gives lectures and keynote addresses in universities and institutions in The Netherlands and abroad. These include the IUCN World Parks Congress (Durban, 2003), the Raiffeisen lecture (Amsterdam, 2005), the Volkskrant Lecture (Amsterdam, 2005), the Symposium Sustainability Personalised (The Hague, 2008), the Martin Buber Award (Maastricht, 2010), the World Cultural Forum (Taihu, 2013), and the Jungian Institute Nijmegen. Among her books are Mujer y Sociedad (1979), Dialogue with Nature (1995), Samen (1998), de Natuur zijn wij (2003), Science, Soul and the Spirit of Nature—Leading Thinkers on the Restoration of Man and Creation (2005), Leven in Verbinding (2010), and The Wisdom Factor (2012). HRH Princess Irene was a lecturer at the 2007 Eranos Conference, representing a long-standing interest by her family. On October 19, 1951, her mother, HM Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (1909–2004), invited Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn to her residence—by chance, on the day of the latter’s seventieth birthday. Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn reported that HM Queen Juliana wished to know in depth about Eranos, and that all the Eranos Yearbooks were on display in the Queen’s private library.
Kristine Mann: Jung’s “Miss X” and a Pioneer in Psychoanalysis
A graduate of the C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Beth Darlington, Ph.D., is a licensed and certified Jungian analyst and has a private practice in Poughkeepsie, NY, where she has been a professor of English at Vassar College for many years. She is a member of the New York Association for Analytical Psychology and the International Association for Analytical Psychology; she serves on the Boards of the C. G. Jung Institute of New York and the Kristine Mann Library, has taught both at the Institute and New York’s Jung Foundation, and edits the book review section for the Foundation’s journal Quadrant. Her books, articles, and lectures include work on the English Romantic poets, mythology, fairy tales, and Jungian psychology.
Hans Thomas Hakl, Eranos: An Alternative Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century. Reviewed by Robert Hinshaw.
Robert Hinshaw, Ph.D., a former Spring editor, co-founded and is publisher of Daimon Verlag in Einsiedeln, Switzerland, and is a faculty member and training analyst/supervisor at the C. G. Jung Institute of Zürich in Küsnacht.
His relationship with Eranos began as a student in the 70s and has continued to the present day.
C. G. Jung, The Solar Myths and Opicinus de Canistris—Notes of the Seminar given at Eranos in 1943, (2015).
Reviewed by Keiron Le Grice.
Keiron Le Grice, Ph.D., is a professor of depth psychology and chair of the Jungian and Archetypal Studies program at Pacifica Graduate Institute, California, and founding editor of Archai: The Journal of Archetypal Cosmology. His publications include The Archetypal Cosmos: Rediscovering the Gods in Myth, Science and Astrology (2011), Discovering Eris: The Symbolism and Significance of a New Planetary Archetype (2012), The Rebirth of the Hero: Mythology as a Guide to Spiritual Transformation (2013). His website is www.keironlegrice.com.
Dick Russell, The Life and Ideas of James Hillman, Vol. 1, The Making of a Psychologist. (2013).
Reviewed by Stanton Marlan
Stanton Marlan, Ph.D., A.B.P.P., L.P. (clinical psychology), and Ph.D.(philosophy) is a clinical psychologist and Jungian analyst in private practice in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and an adjunct Clinical Professor of Psychology and clinical supervisor at Duquesne University Psychology Clinic. A training and supervising analyst with the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts, Dr. Marlan is also President of the Pittsburgh Society of Jungian Analysts, and is board-certified in both clinical psychology and psychoanalysis from the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). He is a director on The American Board and Academy of Psychoanalysis (ABAPsa) and is now its President-elect. Dr. Marlan has published numerous articles on Jungian psychology and is the editor of four books, including Archetypal Psychologies: Reflections in Honor of James Hillman. He was a Fay lecturer at Texas A&M and the author of The Black Sun: The Alchemy and Art of Darkness.
Erel Shalit, The Complex: Path of Transformation from Archetype to Ego. (2002)
Erel Shalit, The Hero and His Shadow: Psychopolitical Aspects of Myth and Reality in Israel. (2004, 2011).
Erel Shalit, Enemy, Cripple & Beggar: Shadows in the Hero’s Path. (2008).
Erel Shalit, Requiem: A Tale of Exile and Return. ( 2010).
Erel Shalit, The Cycle of Life: Themes and Tales of the Journey. (2011).
Reviewed by Steve Zemmelman
Steve Zemmelman, Ph.D. is an analyst member of the C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco. He is an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California at San Francisco, adjunct professor at Pacifica Graduate Institute, core faculty member of the Sanville Institute for Clinical Social Work and Psychotherapy, and a former lecturer in the School of Social Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Zemmelman has a private practice of Jungian analysis and psychotherapy in Berkeley and San Francisco, California. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or www.drstevezemmelman.net.
Jean Kirsch and Murray Stein, eds., How and Why We Still Read Jung: Personal and Professional Reflections. (2013)
Reviewed by Roderick Main
Roderick Main, Ph.D., is a professor at the Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies and Deputy Dean (Education) for the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Essex, UK. He is the author of The Rupture of Time: Synchronicity and Jung’s Critique of Modern Western Culture (Brunner-Routledge, 2004) and Revelations of Chance: Synchronicity as Spiritual Experience (SUNY, 2007), the editor of Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal (Routledge/Princeton University Press, 1997), and the co-editor of Myth, Literature, and the Unconscious (Karnac, 2013).
Craig E. Stephenson, ed., Jung and Moreno: Essays on the Theatre of Human Nature. (2013)
Reviewed by Robert MacDonald
Robert Macdonald is a member of The Independent Group of Analytical Psychologists (IGAP) with a private practice in London, UK. He was formerly Head of Voice at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art where he taught the Alexander Technique for eighteen years. Website: www.robertmacdonald.org
Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, ed., Spiritual Ecology: The Cry of the Earth. (2013)
Reviewed by Ann Kutek
Ann Kutek, B.A. (Hons.) Oxon. in PPE, Dip. Soc. Admin., Dip. S.W., C.Q.S.W., is a member of the British Psychotherapy Foundation (BPF)/British Jungian Analytic Association (BJAA), maintains a private practice, and has been published in journals and books since 1981. She was a manager in local government and the voluntary sector prior to becoming an analytical psychologist. Among her presentations have been papers on Translation in Montreal to the IAAP, on Climate Change to the Copenhagen Congress in 2013, and on Town Planning and Alchemy in London in 2014. She teaches at Birkbeck, University of London, at BPF, and in Poland where she supervises Polish IAAP routers.
Dennis Patrick Slattery, Creases in Culture: Essays Toward a Poetics of Depth (2014)
Reviewed by Susan Rowland
Susan Rowland, Ph.D., is chair of the M.A. in Engaged Humanities and the Creative Life at Pacifica Graduate Institute. She has published widely on Jung, literary theory, and gender including the newly released The Sleuth and the Goddess published by Spring Journal Books in 2015.